Songwriting Tips, News & More

Songwriting Tip: Legal Issues With Songwriter Collaborations

Posted by Jessica Brandon on Tue, Apr 05, 2016 @07:00 AM

Songwriting Tip: Legal Issues With Songwriter Collaborations
by Wallace Collins, Esq

MusicianArt-1

Under the US copyright law, an author or creator owns a copyright in his or her work the moment it is “fixed in a tangible medium” (i.e., the moment the expression of an idea is written down or recorded in some manner). When it comes to the recorded music business there are two primary copyrights of interest: one in the musical composition or song; another in the sound recording of that song. A copyright extends for the life of an author plus 70 years, and in the case of collaborators on a copyright it extends for the life of the last surviving collaborator plus 70 years.

This article will focus on the collaboration between and among the co-writers of the musical composition or song which is generally comprised of the music (e.g., melody, harmony, chords, rhythm, etc.) and the lyrics (i.e., the words). The essence of collaboration is working together to create a single work regardless of how or what each party contributes. Collaborators may work together in the same room at the same time, or not. The creative contribution of each co-author may be equal in quality or quantity, or not. Both authors may work together on the music and lyrics or one might write just music and the other lyrics. The long history of collaboration has shown that there are endless combinations. Co-authors do not need to have a written agreement concerning their joint work, but it is probably a good idea to do so given the myriad issues that can arise and become a problem under such circumstances.

             Co-writers can divide copyright ownership in whatever proportion they determine, and that ownership concerns both rights (ownership and control) and revenues (income generated). In the absence of a written agreement, under current case law concerning both copyright and partnership law two or more collaborators are generally deemed to share equally on a pro rata basis. This might be so even if it is clear that the contributions of the authors were not equal since the Courts generally prefer not to make decisions about the value of each author’s contribution to a copyright and simply divide it by the number of authors (and we probably prefer that Courts not be making decisions about whether the hook or chorus lyric has more or less value than the chorus melody, etc.). Therefore, without a written agreement two songwriters would be deemed to own the song fifty-fifty, three songwriters one-third each, etc. A typical music business guideline for dividing ownership has been to designate the music as 50% and the lyric 50% of the song copyright. Under this scenario, if one person creates the music and two others write the lyrics, they may agree to divide the ownership 50% to the music creator and 25% to each of the lyricists. However, this concept does not have any legal significance so if there is no written collaboration agreement then under this scenario each author would own 1/3rd of the song copyright.

             Beyond the issue of just dividing the income there arises the issue of copyright ownership and control (sometimes referred to as the administration right). Many songwriters prefer that there be separate administration among the various writers and their respective publishing companies, if any. In other words, each author retains control over its respective share of the copyright. In this way each writer retains some control over what happens with the song, the scope of the licenses and how much is charged. Under US copyright law, each joint copyright owner can exploit the song and also grant non-exclusive licenses to third parties subject to the duty to account to the co-writers for any money that is generated. Each writer could also transfer some or all of their respective share of the copyright (e.g., to a publishing company) without affecting the ownership interests of the any other co-writer’s share in the copyright (although no one writer can grant an exclusive license nor transfer copyright ownership in the entire song without the written permission of each co-writer).

             All of these issues can be addressed in a written collaboration agreement. There are endless variations depending on the circumstances. Each author may retain his or her share of revenues and ownership but grant the administration rights to one party (e.g., the artist/co-writer and/or its label) so that the artist would have the right to record and exploit the song and grant third party licenses. Particularly in the world of synchronization licenses (i.e., using the audio with visual images such as in film, television or video games), it is usually more convenient for one party to have the right to grant licenses and to collect and divide all the income. Licensing can become complicated when a licensee has to seek the approval of, and document permission from, multiple writers and their respective publishers. However, each different scenario and the co-writers involved will need to determine and negotiate what arrangement works best for themselves in that particular situation.

             A collaboration agreement can be as simple as a pie chart drawing made on a napkin at the dinner after the writing session or as complicated as a writer’s publishing company dictates that it be. Over the years there have been many stories of writers agreeing, however reluctantly, to acknowledge a “co-writer” who did not even make a contribution to a song (e.g., featured artists, producers, record executives, band members, etc.). The exact contribution to a song is always a somewhat subjective measurement and if the price of getting a song on the record of a multi-platinum artist is to share writing credit then this pressure can be difficult, if not impossible, to resist. However, keep in mind that once a “co-writer” is acknowledged in writing it can be very difficult to undo. Most successful songwriters rarely, if ever, share credit in this context and every writer should try to follow this practice.

            At the end of the day, if you believe in yourself and your talents, give yourself the benefit of the doubt, and invest in good legal representation - all the successful songwriters do. Your lawyer can create a fair collaboration agreement for you to use or “translate” the documentation presented to you and explain its terms and then help negotiate more favorable terms for you as appropriate. My advice: never sign anything - other than an autograph - without having your entertainment lawyer review it first.

[Article used by permission from Wallace Collins]

Wallace Collins is an entertainment lawyer and intellectual property attorney with more     than 30 years of experience. He was a songwriter and recording artist for Epic Records before receiving his law degree from Fordham Law School. T: (212) 661-3656; www.wallacecollins.com


  
To enter the 21st Annual USA Songwriting Competition, go to: http://www.songwriting.net

 
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Tags: songwriter, song writer, song write, Song writing, Songwriting, songwrite, song demo, collaborations, copyright a song, Registering a copyright, U.S. Copyright Office, Co-Writing Songs

Songwriting Tip: Why You Still Should Register A "Copyrighted" Work

Posted by Jessica Brandon on Tue, Mar 29, 2016 @07:00 AM

Songwriting Tip: Why You Still Should Register A "Copyrighted" Work
by Justin M. Jacobson, Esq., The Jacobson Firm, P.C.

copyright_stamp

While many creatives in the entertainment industry believe (and are partly correct) that a work is copyrighted as soon as it is fixed in a tangible medium it still pays, often literally, to formally register the work with the U.S. Copyright Office, particularly where legal issues are concerned.

A common misconception in the entertainment industry is that an author has a “copyright registration” in the work upon completion and the publication of the created work. However, this is not true. Although the Berne Convention, which the United States is a signatory to, creates a “universal copyright” or copyright upon creation and publication of a work, the work is not “registered” until it has, in fact, been registered with the U.S. Copyright Office. Truth be told, all of the benefits of copyright ownership are not available in America until the Copyright has been registered.

Registering a copyright is as easy as preparing and submitting an application to the United States Copyright Office with the appropriate filing fee and a copy of the copyrighted material. Once the work is registered and the certification is issued, the benefits of the registration begin immediately and are retroactive to the original filing date of these elements.

While it is established that a copyright is automatically created in a work upon the completion of the original work of authorship, when it is fixed in a tangible medium of expression; a formal registration of the creative materials with the U.S. Copyright Office within three months of public release provides additional, valuable benefits to the creator of the work. Some of these benefits include that the work now becomes a matter of public record and is available for search within the U.S. Copyright Office and the Library of Congress. This makes it easy to search and verify the ownership and extent of an existing, copyrighted work. This permits an individual to quickly find and contact the creator in the event that the individual desires to use or license the copyrighted material.

Additionally, in order to bring a copyright infringement lawsuit when an author believes that one of their copyrighted works has been infringed upon, the work must be registered with the U.S. Copyright Office prior to instituting a lawsuit. A valid registration certificate constitutes prima facie evidence of valid copyright ownership in the work after five years. Also, if the owner has filed for registration prior to the infringement or within three months of publication of the work, the author may be entitled to recover actual damages incurred, statutory damages as well as attorney’s fees. These fees can exceed the actual damages incurred by the copyright owner.

A valid registration also defeats a defendant’s defense of being an “innocent infringer” and provides increased statutory damages for infringements found to be “willful.” It also allows for the owner to easily license and catalog the various rights in the works.

Therefore, while there is no requirement to register a work to receive a “copyright” in the creative work, the existence of a valid copyright registration certificate provides numerous benefits to protect the work as well as provides monetary and licensing benefits that would not exist without the certificate.


[Article used by permission from Justin Jacobson]

Justin M. Jacobson has helped bring in numerous new high-profile clients, including Celebrity DJ/Producer Joshua “Zeke” Thomas and his Gorilla Records label; international live art competition, ArtBattles; G-Unit Records recording artist, Precious Paris; former NY Jet Donald Strickland; Warner-Chappell producer, J-Dens; celebrity jewelry designer, Laurel DeWitt; and BMI Latin award-winning producer, Carlos Escalona. He also spoke at Cardozo School of Law as part of “Beyond The Billboard: Advertising Law in the Fashion Industry” presented by their SELSA & IPLS Fashion Law Committees. He is a lawyer at The Jacobson Firm, P.C.: http://www.thejacobsonfirmpc.com/
  
To enter the 21st Annual USA Songwriting Competition, go to: http://www.songwriting.net

 
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Tags: songwriter, song writer, song write, Song writing, Songwriting, songwrite, song demo, copyright a song, Registering a copyright, U.S. Copyright Office, Co-Writing Songs

Songwriting Tip: Does your Latest Song Sound Similar to Ones Before?

Posted by Jessica Brandon on Tue, Mar 22, 2016 @07:00 AM

Songwriting Tip: Does your Latest Song Sound Similar to Ones Before?

by Mylène Besançon

 

rsz_sound_like

For many songwriters, one of the biggest challenges is ensuring that their songs are unique. With music lovers tending to have very discriminating hearing and short attention spans, picking up on similar patterns, lyrics or recurring themes between two or more of your songs could easily turn them off, regardless of how subtle the similarities are.

In a saturated music market, it’s not uncommon for different songs from different songwriters to sound similar, especially in genres such as pop. Listeners, though, are less likely to be forgiving when they are from the same songwriter.

So, how do you avoid plagiarizing your own music (or anybody else’s for that matter?) Whether you’re a known songwriter or still in obscurity, there are a number of ways to ensure that all of your songs sound different from each other.

  1. Have friends and family review your songs: If you have a large catalog, you may not have the time to go through all your previous songs to see if a new one sounds similar. But, you can ask people who are close to you and are familiar with your music to read through your lyrics and listen to the song to determine if it’s noticeably similar to anything you’ve done before.

  2. Invest in a low cost music production company: This really depends on what you can afford as a songwriter who is trying to make a career out of your writing talent. However, if you’re out of writing ideas and in danger of using the same melodies in new songs, you should contemplate investing some money into an affordable music production house that can bring fresh ideas to the table to match your style or even help you revamp songs you’ve already written so that they sound totally different.

  3. Expand your repertoire: If you’re already well-known for writing songs based on certain themes, rhyme schemes and genres, you may want to broaden your horizons without totally alienating your fan base. This may be a balancing act but music history is littered with singers and songwriters who successfully crossed genres and strayed from the prevailing themes of their song collections, earning new fans and expanding their markets in the process.

  4. Collaborate with another writer: People co-write songs all the time and, while this may cut into your royalties, it is better to share than risk losing listeners due to unoriginality. However, be sure to work with someone who is a good writer and can bring fresh ideas to the table.

  5. Learn an instrument: Some of the best songwriters are those who also play an instrument, such as the guitar or piano. Adding an instrument to your skillset can serve as inspiration and as a guide in your head when trying to write fresh lyrics.

As a songwriter who intends to make a life and living from your talent, having a steady stream of songs under your belt is the only way to keep going. However, continuously writing songs may eventually take a toll on the imagination, making it harder to compose a song that has its own identity when compared with all those you did in the past. The preceding tips could help you to survive such trying periods whenever they arise.

Mylène Besançon is the CMO of SongCat LLC, a top-rated online recording studio. We believe that by making professional music production financially accessible to anyone with a dream and a voice, we have the potential to change the musical landscape forever. Visit http://songcat.biz to learn more.

  
To enter the 21st Annual USA Songwriting Competition, go to: http://www.songwriting.net

 
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Tags: songwriter, song writer, song write, Song writing, Songwriting, songwrite, song demo, copyright a song, Registering a copyright, U.S. Copyright Office, Co-Writing Songs

Max Martin, the Most Successful Songwriter

Posted by Jessica Brandon on Tue, Mar 15, 2016 @07:00 AM

Max Martin, the Most Successful Songwriter (in the last 20 years)

MaxMartin.jpg

Just turn on Top 40 radio and you will hear one of his songs "Shake It Off", a song recorded by Taylor Swift. Max Martin, is a Swedish songwriter and producer has replaced Diane Warren as the most successful pop songwriter of the last 20 years.. He rose to prominence in the mid-1990s after making a string of major hits for artists such as the Backstreet Boys, Britney Spears, Bon Jovi and NSYNC. Some of his earlier hits include "I Want It That Way" (1999), "...Baby One More Time" (1999) and "It's My Life" (2000).

Martin, born Martin Sandberg in Stockholm, won the Grammy for producer of the year, non-classical, in 2015 and Album of the year (for Taylor Swift’s “1989” Album) in 2016. He has written 21 No. 1s on the Billboard Hot 100, more than any other writer in history except for Paul McCartney (32) and John Lennon (26). Martin has produced 19 of the Hot 100 No. 1s, more than any other producer except for another Martin: Beatles producer George Martin, with 23. Max Martin's run began with Britney Spears' "…Baby One More Time: in 1999. He has also written No. 1s for *NSYNC, Katy Perry, Pink, Kelly Clarkson, Maroon 5, Taylor Swift and The Weeknd.

Hitting #1 on the Billboard Hot 100 Charts is the absolute "Olympic Gold Medal" measure for a songwriter. In the Billboard Charts' Hot 100's 57-year history, only Paul McCartney (32) and John Lennon (26) boast more leaders as writers.

Expanding the scope to the Billboard Hot 100's top 10, Martin's sum swells to an astonishing 58 top 10s on which he's credited as a writer. While it's not an all-time record (yet; McCartney boasts more).

 

Here are Max Martin's 58 Hot 100 Top 10s as a Songwriter

Peak Pos., Title, Artist, Peak Date

No. 7, "Do You Know (What It Takes)," Robyn, 8/2/1997

No. 2, "Quit Playing Games (With My Heart)," Backstreet Boys, 9/6/1997

No. 7, "Show Me Love," Robyn, 11/29/1997

No. 4, "Everybody [Backstreet's Back]," Backstreet Boys, 5/9/1998

No. 1 (two weeks), "...Baby One More Time," Britney Spears, 1/30/1999

No. 6, "I Want It That Way," Backstreet Boys, 6/26/1999

No. 10, "(You Drive Me) Crazy," Britney Spears, 11/13/1999

No. 6, "That's the Way It Is," Celine Dion, 3/4/2000

No. 6, "Show Me the Meaning of Being Lonely," Backstreet Boys, 3/18/2000

No. 9, "Oops!...I Did It Again," Britney Spears, 6/10/2000

No. 1 (two weeks), "It's Gonna Be Me," 'N Sync, 7/29/2000

No. 9, "Shape of My Heart," Backstreet Boys, 12/2/2000

No. 2, "Since U Been Gone," Kelly Clarkson, 4/9/05

No. 6, "Behind These Hazel Eyes," Kelly Clarkson, 6/11/05

No. 9, "U + Ur Hand," P!nk, 5/5/2007

No. 9, "Who Knew," P!nk, 9/29/2007

No. 3, "Hot N Cold," Katy Perry, 1/22/2008

No. 1 (seven weeks), "I Kissed a Girl," Katy Perry, 7/5/2008

No. 1 (one week), "So What," P!nk, 9/27/2008

No. 1 (two weeks), "My Life Would Suck Without You," Kelly Clarkson, 2/7/2009

No. 1 (one week), "3," Britney Spears, 10/24/2009

No. 10, "Whataya Want From Me," Adam Lambert, 5/1/2010

No. 1, "California Gurls," Katy Perry feat. Snoop Dogg, 6/19/2010

No. 2, "Dynamite," Taio Cruz, 8/21/2010

No. 1 (two weeks), "Teenage Dream," Katy Perry, 9/18/2010

No. 4, "DJ Got Us Fallin' in Love," Usher feat. Pitbull, 10/9/2010

No. 8, "Teenage Dream," Glee Cast, 11/27/2010

No. 1 (one week), "Raise Your Glass," P!nk, 12/11/2010

No. 1 (one week), "Hold It Against Me," Britney Spears, 1/29/2011

No. 2, "F**kin' Perfect," P!nk, 2/12/2011

No. 7, "Blow," Ke$ha, 3/19/2011

No. 6, "Loser Like Me," Glee Cast, 4/2/2011

No. 1 (five weeks), "E.T.," Katy Perry feat. Kanye West, 4/9/2011

No. 3, "Till the World Ends," Britney Spears, 5/14/2011

No. 7, "I Wanna Go," Britney Spears, 8/20/2011

No. 1 (two weeks), "Last Friday Night (T.G.I.F.)," Katy Perry, 8/27/2011

No. 3, "The One That Got Away," Katy Perry, 1/7/2012

No. 6, "Domino," Jessie J, 2/18/2012

No. 1 (one week), "Part of Me," Katy Perry, 3/3/2012

No. 9, "Scream," Usher, 8/4/2012

No. 2, "Wide Awake," Katy Perry, 8/11/2012

No. 1 (three weeks), "We Are Never Ever Getting Back Together," Taylor Swift, 9/1/2012

No. 1 (nine weeks), "One More Night," Maroon 5, 9/29/2012

No. 5, "Beauty and a Beat," Justin Bieber feat. Nicki Minaj, 1/5/2013

No. 2, "I Knew You Were Trouble.," Taylor Swift, 1/12/2013

No. 7, "Daylight," Maroon 5, 2/23/2013

No. 1 (two weeks), "Roar," Katy Perry, 9/14/2013

No. 1 (four weeks), "Dark Horse," Katy Perry feat. Juicy J, 2/8/2014

No. 2, "Problem," Ariana Grande feat. Iggy Azalea, 6/7/2014

No. 4, "Break Free," Ariana Grande feat. Zedd, 8/30/2014

No. 1 (four weeks), "Shake It Off," Taylor Swift, 9/6/2014

No. 3, "Bang Bang," Jessie J, Ariana Grande & Nicki Minaj, 10/4/2014

No. 7, "Love Me Harder," Ariana Grande & The Weeknd, 11/22/2014

No. 1 (seven weeks), "Blank Space," Taylor Swift, 11/29/2014

No. 3, "Love Me Like You Do," Ellie Goulding, 3/7/2015

No. 6, "Style," Taylor Swift, 3/21/2015

No. 1 (one week), "Bad Blood," Taylor Swift feat. Kendrick Lamar, 6/6/2015

No. 1 (one week to-date), "Can't Feel My Face," The Weeknd, 8/22/2015


  
To enter the 21st Annual USA Songwriting Competition, go to: http://www.songwriting.net

 
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Tags: songwriter, song writer, song write, Song writing, Songwriting, songwrite, song demo, Britney Spears, Co-Writing Songs, The Weeknd, Ellie Goulding, Taylor Swift, Jessie J, Max Martin

How Songwriters Make Money From Publishing

Posted by Jessica Brandon on Tue, Mar 08, 2016 @07:00 AM

How Songwriters Make Money From Publishing
by Justin M. Jacobson, Esq., The Jacobson Firm, P.C.

Songwriting

While songwriters and musicians are often advised by their fellow artists to keep their own publishing, such an approach is no longer especially applicable in the modern music economy. It is more important that artists develop a solid understanding of where exactly publishing revenue comes from, and how to deal with Performing Rights Organizations.

Every new musician is told by some other musician or industry professional “to keep your publishing” or some variation of this. Such a statement is archaic and a potentially career debilitating mistake. A better understanding of what “publishing” monies consist of and why this outdated advice of “keeping your publishing at all costs” no longer applies in today’s digital music age is needed.

Generally, “publishing money” as it is referred to, actually includes the royalties earned from the public performance of a musical work, specifically for the owners of the copyright in the underlying musical composition. Typically, the underlying musical composition in a musical work refers to the lyrics and underlying musical composition. These rights are owned by the track’s songwriters, composers and publishers.

A track’s songwriters, producers and composers must sign up with the appropriate performing rights organization to receive their public performance royalties or so-called “publishing monies.” In the U.S., the Performing Rights Organizations are ASCAP, BMI and SESAC. Each country has their own performing rights organizations, so a foreign citizen might apply and become a member of the organization for the country they are citizen of.

Once an individual is signed up with a Performing Rights Organization, they must properly index their works with that organization. This involves listing each track’s writers and composers as well as their appropriate ownership percentage. The performing rights organizations then collect and distribute these “small” public performance royalties to its members based upon its own unique pay-out formula. Each organization has its own pay-out formula and a musician can research and determine the best fit for their music on each organization’s official website.

Every Performing Rights Organization collects and licenses their members’ works for public performance usages. Some of these public usages include license fees to play the songs on terrestrial and satellite radio, on television, in motion pictures, through digital streaming services and for the live performances of the works at venues, stadiums, theme parks and concert halls as well as colleges and universities.

Today’s music business has evolved to a more 360° model, where all of the artist’s monetary revenue streams are subject to recoupment and payment to a particular entity, like a record label. These deals typically include a specific percent interest in the signing artist’s “publishing;” and, since this has become the norm, it’s nearly impossible for an artist to have such stream excluded.

In order for an artist to typically achieve the notoriety and budget needed to create a real impact in the entertainment industry, the benefits that a major label receives in return must be worth their time and effort. Without one of the most lucrative streams of income, i.e. “publishing,” such a feat is nearly impossible and impractical from a label’s point of view.

So some new advice is, keep your publishing unless you have a really good reason not to, like to bring your career to the next level, a level that you might not have otherwise been able to achieve. As they say 100% of nothing, is, well, nothing.

For additional information and membership forms, please visit www.ascap.com ; www.bmi.com; or www.sesac.com.

 

[Article used by permission from Justin Jacobson]

Justin M. Jacobson has helped bring in numerous new high-profile clients, including Celebrity DJ/Producer Joshua “Zeke” Thomas and his Gorilla Records label; international live art competition, ArtBattles; G-Unit Records recording artist, Precious Paris; former NY Jet Donald Strickland; Warner-Chappell producer, J-Dens; celebrity jewelry designer, Laurel DeWitt; and BMI Latin award-winning producer, Carlos Escalona. He also spoke at Cardozo School of Law as part of “Beyond The Billboard: Advertising Law in the Fashion Industry” presented by their SELSA & IPLS Fashion Law Committees. He is a lawyer at The Jacobson Firm, P.C.: http://www.thejacobsonfirmpc.com/
  
To enter the 21st Annual USA Songwriting Competition, go to: http://www.songwriting.net

 
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Tags: songwriter, song writer, song write, Song writing, Songwriting, songwrite, Recording, song demo, ASCAP, BMI, SESAC, music publishing, demo recording, Co-Writing Songs

Finally taking control of your songwriting

Posted by Jessica Brandon on Tue, Mar 01, 2016 @01:48 PM

Imagine… Finally taking control of your songwriting!

by Mark Cawley

ControlSongwriting
Here’s the idea. Think of yourself as an entrepreneur. Great inventors never wait for the world to discover them, they discover things the world needs or at least, the world’s interested in.   
The business model of songwriting has changed and continues to evolve. Where can you fit in? Chances are this hasn’t been part of your creative journey, maybe it hasn’t had to be but what if it were?
What if you match your song with another art form? Rather than waiting on that publishing deal or for your song to be found you get pro-active?


Before you groan too loudly I’m not talking about writing for the advertising world although it’s not a bad idea. What if your song is a match for a project or a product or even a campaign but the powers that be don’t know it? You can be the matchmaker.


For instance …
I have a songwriter I’ve coached that wrote a very cool song about coffee. She didn’t write it for Starbucks but why not reach out to them or any number of caffeine related products and see if your song can be a part of someone’s bigger vision? She has been putting it out there and getting a great response. Nothing to lose. Hasn’t landed yet but…it might and by being the writer, owning the publishing, she gets on someone’s radar and can even be more flexible than a standard publisher might in getting a usage.


Another friend and client in Australia sent me a song called “Stephen Hawking Wants You To”. I urged her to look for any projects involving Stephen Hawking. This was before last year’s movie about him. She reached a UK film company who had just done a project about him but now has a dialogue to send lot’s of her songs for possible film use.


Another for instance.
Kye Fleming and I wrote a song about a year ago called “What Would Lennon Do”. We weren’t asked to write it, didn’t think it had commercial hit written all over it, just wrote it to express ourselves. Rather than let it sit we started thinking…big. Who might want this to be a part of their message? It’s a song of peace so we reached out to the UN. Sounds far fetched? You’d be amazed at the people who are open to a good idea. It reached all the way to the secretary of the UN. They are still deciding how best to connect it . We kept thinking. We also reached out to Amnesty International and they are in the process of creating a charity single with their artist board.

So many artists are being found though mediums other than records. Someone has to have the big idea, make the connection. Why not the songwriter?


My point is your song might be someone’s solution. Thing big, think waaaay outside the box and pitch your own song. Waiting on the world to hear you or waiting on that publisher to do the work for you is getting harder than ever. Not only that but most of the best and most successful songwriters I know have always pitched their own ideas. They might have a great publisher but they didn’t always  wait for them to come up with the best idea. They became their best promoter.
By creating a vision you’re taking control of your songs, you’re taking control of your career and, the buzz you may get from  connecting your vision to someone else’s can be bigger than you ever imagined.
Control equals freedom and freedom feels great!

About Mark Cawley
Mark Cawley is a hit U.S. songwriter and musician who coaches other writers and artists to reach their creative and professional goals. During his decades in the music business he has procured a long list of cuts with legendary artists ranging from Tina Turner, Joe Cocker, Chaka Khan and Diana Ross to Wynonna Judd, Kathy Mattea, Russ Taff, Paul Carrack, Will Downing, Tom Scott, Billie Piper, Pop Idol winners and The Spice Girls. To date his songs have been on more than 15 million records. Mark’s resume includes hits on the Pop, Country, R&B, Jazz, and Rock charts and several publishing deals with the likes of Virgin, Windswept Pacific, and Steelworks/Universal. Mark calls on his decades of experience in the publishing world, as an artist on major labels, co-writer with everyone from Eliot Kennedy and Burt Bacharach to Simon Climie and Kye Fleming, composing, and recording to mentor clients around the globe with iDoCoach. He is a contributing author to the USA Songwriting Competition a popular blogger and, from time to time, conducts his own workshops. Born and raised in Syracuse, NY, Mark has also lived in Boston, L.A., Indianapolis, London, and the last 20 years in Nashville, TN.

  
To enter the 21st Annual USA Songwriting Competition, go to: http://www.songwriting.net

 
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Songwriting Tip: Dealing With Song Critiques

Posted by Jessica Brandon on Tue, Feb 23, 2016 @07:00 AM

Songwriting Tip: Dealing With Song Critiques

by Harriet Schock

In my opinion, bad song critiquing has gotten more writers in trouble than bad songwriting. A bad song is simply a bad song. But bad song critiquing can hurt a good song. It's frequently done by publishers, A&R people, music supervisors, song pluggers...in short, business people. It's even done routinely by songwriters who don't write as well as you can, who've never had a cut. I don't understand that practice, but it's out there. Even professional songwriters will critique in a dangerous way, crippling the requesting writer in an attempt to help him, by pointing out weaknesses at the exclusion of the strengths of the song. I will frequently inherit the victim of some sort of brutal or idiotic critique. I will invariably hear from a new student, "So-and-so said such-and-such about this song and I don't know what to do about it."

I frequently get asked to critique songs and it is a frustrating process. It was so frustrating, in fact, that when I started teaching years ago, I came up a step-by-step method of starting from scratch that streamlines the process and helps create better songwriters.

Someone recently sent me a song to critique. He lives in Nashville and he has excellent taste in songs. He knew the difference between good and great and he wanted to be great. In my head I kept hearing the lyric from "I'm Gonna Wash That Man Right Outa My Hair," which says "You can't fix an egg when it ain't quite good and you can't fix a man when he's wrong..."

Well, I wouldn't say you can't fix a song when it's wrong, but I will say you can fix a song only up to a point. I'm constantly being asked, however, to "fix" songs that should have simply been started differently, developed differently and crafted better. Here's the analogy that springs to mind and I shared it with the songwriter from Nashville: You are at sea level. You’re building a house. Your house will be built at sea level. But when it's done, you go to the builder and say "I'd like that house to be at 1000-ft. elevation." His answer is, "No, but I can take you to another town which is 1000 feet above sea level and build that house there."

All the years that I was asked to critique songs brought me two things: heartbreak and a realization. Heartbreak came when I had to tell the person there was a serious problem with a song he had demoed for a thousand dollars. The realization was that if you give the person a way to write songs in the first place, he will not have to "fix" every song he writes. The sad truth is that he will not be able to "fix" many of them. He took too many wrong turns and ended up with a song that is simply not his best effort.

Imagine you're in a shopping mall. You're trying to get to Bloomingdale's but you don't have a map that says "you are here." So you take one corridor and then another and you may end up in the food court, or at Macy's but you will not end up at Bloomingdale's every time. Maybe every once in a while you'll happen upon it. But your song took a wrong turn at the title, then you took a wrong turn at the first picture or plot point you used to tell the story, then you decided on an ending for THAT story, which wasn't the story you should have told in the first place. Melodically, you settled for a melody that came easily but that doesn't move anyone and "fixing" a melody is even harder than "fixing" a lyric. You can make it stronger by changing some steps to some leaps or going to some less predictable chords. You can even change the rhythmic groove it sits on. But why do all that? Why not just get the best song in the first place?

Now don't get me wrong. Some songs are a perfect face with a big wart on the end of the nose. Everyone can see the wart except the writer and it's easy to say "remove the wart" and the song is great. At other times, there's an unexpressed great idea jumping from the page to any experienced songwriter and simply giving the author that suggestion is all that's needed to take the song to the next level. Tweaking is a way of life for songwriters and I'm certainly not saying it's ill-advised or impossible. What I'm referring to is trying to make a song that's a 5 into a song that's is a 10.

I used to have a mentor who said he could tell the minute someone walked into the room if he had talent. I used to be suspicious of that comment. But now I know what he meant. Even though this is a bit different from what he said, I can tell immediately, at an open mike, if the writer has the goods. I don't need to wait until the third song, or the third measure, for that matter, although I usually do. Sure, there may be a hole in the second verse you could drive an SUV through, but that song is still sitting on solid ground and can be rebuilt.

Sometimes a writer will confess to me that his songs are not made of the same stuff as the great songs--the ones you listen to and say "I wish I'd written that." There's a kind of depth to a great song that a good song just doesn't have. If you aspire to write great songs that will live on after you have no more teeth to gnash over your bridge (no pun intended), then stop asking people to "fix" your songs. Simply become a better songwriter by either studying the work of great songwriters or finding a mentor or book. Then you won't have to put up with all the inane critiquing on the part of "industry guests" who are not songwriters and should restrict their comments to "I can use it" or "I can't use it." Even car dealerships don't let the salesmen work under the hood.  



Harriet Schock wrote the words and music to the Grammy-nominated #1 hit, "Ain't No Way To Treat A Lady" plus many songs for other artists, TV shows and films. She co-wrote the theme for “Jakers! The Adventures of Piggley Winks,” currently showing in 30 countries. She and her band were featured in Henry Jaglom’s film “Irene In Time” performing 4 of Harriet’s songs. She also scored three other Jaglom films and starred in “Just 45 Minutes from Broadway.“ Jaglom’s most recent film, “The M Word,” features Harriet’s song “Bein’ a Girl,” performed on camera at the end of the film. Karen Black wrote the play, “Missouri Waltz,” around five of Harriet’s songs, which ran for 6 weeks at the Blank Theatre in Hollywood as well as in Macon, Georgia. In 2007, Los Angeles Women In Music honored Harriet with their Career Achievement and Industry Contribution award. Harriet teaches songwriting privately, in classes and a popular online course by private email. For her performance schedule, list of credits and samples of her work or information on her book (Becoming Remarkable, for Songwriters and Those Who Love Songs), and her new up coming book, her songwriting classes, online courses and consultation, go to: www.harrietschock.com

 

For more information on the 21st Annual USA Songwriting Competition, go to: http://www.songwriting.net

 

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6 Questions for Songwriters to Ask Before Demoing a Song

Posted by Jessica Brandon on Tue, Feb 16, 2016 @07:00 AM

6 Questions for Songwriters to Ask Before Demoing a Song
by Cliff Goldmacher

DemoRecording

So you've written a song that you're excited about and feel like it's got a real chance of getting cut or placed in a film or on TV. That's great news. Now the trick is to be sure you're asking the right kinds of questions of yourself and others before you spend good money creating a quality recording. I've put together a list of the six big questions you should ask before demoing a song.

1. Are you prepared to do this professionally?

This sounds like an unnecessary question, I know, but especially early on, songwriters have a tendency to try to cut corners or take a more DIY approach to demos with often amateurish-sounding results. Why would you want to compromise a great song with a mediocre demo just to save a few dollars? The best way I've heard this put is the quote, "Cheap can be expensive." Either you have to have spent the necessary time yourself to become an expert engineer, instrumentalist, and singer in your own studio, or you should seriously consider using a professional studio, musicians, and vocalist.

2. Is your song finished?

I know this sounds like another seemingly unnecessary question, but I can't tell you the number of times songwriters have shown up at my studio to demo a song with unfinished lyrics or unresolved melodies. I get it. It's exciting when you've written a song and you want to get it out in the world as soon as possible. You figure that you can tweak your lyric or melody in the studio but, in my opinion, the studio is the absolute wrong place to try finishing a song. There's nothing more stressful than trying to create when you're paying a dollar a minute or more. Do yourself a favor and make certain your song's melody, lyric, and structure are completely done before you schedule your demo.

 
3. Is your lyric sheet 100 percent accurate?

Often, in the time between finishing your lyric sheet and getting your song ready to demo, the lyric undergoes a few more minor – or sometimes major – tweaks. Taking the time to make certain that every word on your lyric sheet is what you want the demo singer to sing is well worth your while. At the very least, you'll waste valuable studio time having the singer modify the lyric sheet, but if you're not paying close attention during the session, the demo singer might end up singing your old lyric and you'll be in the unfortunate position of having to re-hire them to come back and sing the proper lyric. Fortunately, it's a problem that's easily avoided by double- and triple-checking your final lyric sheet.


4. Do you have a definitive rough recording of your song?

For me, a "definitive rough recording" means you've made a simple, low-fidelity recording into your laptop or smartphone which conveys the proper lyric, melody, and chords of your song. This is generally done with a single instrument and sung by one one of the songwriters in the room after the song is completed. As I've said before, there's no Grammy award for best rough recording, so don't agonize over this. The reason it's useful is it can be sent to the demo singer in advance of the session and referred to when the session musicians arrive. It's always better to have a recording than to assume you'll just be able to play and sing for the musicians or singer in the studio. It's amazing what you forget when you're put on the spot. Stick to your rough recording.


5. Do you have a compelling reason for doing a full-band recording?

The temptation to want to dress up your songs is a very real and potentially expensive one. While I'm well aware that nothing sounds quite as good as a fully produced recording of your song, it's more important to ask yourself whether the pitch opportunities you're considering really require it. There are only a few good reasons to do a full-band recording that justify the expense, such as a film/TV pitch where the scene requires it or an artist demo where you're showcasing not just the song, but the artist's sound. Otherwise, I'd strongly suggest that you consider a high-quality single instrument (guitar or piano) and vocal. This is more than enough to convey your melody and lyric in a professional setting. Also, remember that you can always add additional instruments and production if a later situation warrants.

6. Do you have a full explanation from the studio of all the costs?

When you're choosing a studio and booking your session, don't forget to have a frank discussion with the studio owner regarding any and all potential costs. Sometimes a studio's hourly rate isn't the only cost you'll incur. It's enough to ask exactly what your costs will be. Often, conversations about money can be uncomfortable, but if you're treating your songwriting as a business, then it's essential. It's always better to have a full understanding of your costs going into a session so that you can avoid a potentially awkward conversation later. Even studios that have an hourly rate should be able to give you – within an hour or so – a fairly accurate estimate. Discussing the money up front and getting it out of the way is a great recipe for enjoying your session without being distracted by non-musical things.

The decision to demo one of your songs should never be taken lightly. You're attempting to put in permanent form a representation of your song that you'll use and pitch for many years to come. The demo process itself can be great fun, especially if you've taken the time to properly prepare and do the necessary homework. As I was told once, "It's better to prepare and prevent than to repair and repent." I couldn't agree more.
 
If you’ve ever wondered about the exact chain of events that takes place from the time a song is written and demoed until it winds up on a Top 10 Billboard charting album, purchase Educated Songwriter’s “A Day in the Life of a Demo” webinar for $14.99.
 
Cliff Goldmacher is a songwriter, music producer and educator with recording studios in Nashville, TN and Sonoma, CA. Through his studios, Cliff provides songwriters outside of Nashville with virtual, live access to Nashville’s best session musicians and demo singers for their songwriting demos. To find out more go to https://se295.infusionsoft.com/app/page/studio-services. You can download Cliff’s FREE tip sheet “A Dozen Quick Fixes To Instantly Improve Your Songs” by going to https://se295.infusionsoft.com/app/form/homepage-songwriting-tip-sheet.
 
To enter the USA Songwriting Competition, go to: http://www.songwriting.net

 
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Five Songwriting Habits You Should Drop Today

Posted by Jessica Brandon on Tue, Feb 09, 2016 @07:00 AM

Five Songwriting Habits You Should Drop Today
by Jessica Brandon
GuitarFret
If you are spending hours working on writing songs and not getting the results you want, you may have a “songwriting habit” or two that needs dropped.

Here are five habits to ditch that will help you grow your songwriting —not to mention reduce the amount of time you spend on you getting your songs cut by music artists.

1. Churning and burning.  Yes, you want to have your songs cut by major music artists, and  perhaps even yourself as a singer-songwriter act, but if you are only focused on writing new songs without paying attention to existing your existing songs, you are wasting a lot of time and energy and leaving a whole lot of  lessons learnt on the table. If you have a system in place for writing songs but it is not working – if your songs are going nowhere and you are dissatisfied with your songwriting career or singer-songwriter career, maybe you may want to think “outside the box”.

2. Getting leads on Major Artists Seeking New Songs without having appropriate songs. Getting a bunch of new leads can give your ego a huge boost, but only if you have great songs that your leads want. If you have leads with no immediate songs to provide for them, or are randomly following up, you are not only wasting time, money and effort, but you could be leaving a bad impression.

3. Chasing A&R. I’ve seen it time and time again. You get a hot lead to an A&R at some record label or music publisher and you keep chasing after him while neglecting to have great songs in place that will continually attract your ideal music publisher to you. Stop chasing, start attracting.

4. Doing the same thing. If you aren’t getting the results you want—if you aren’t living your dream life—maybe it’s time to look at doing things differently. Too many songwriters look at what their competitor songwriters are doing and think they should be doing the same thing. But that doesn’t make sense if you aren’t where you want to be.

Maybe it’s time to do the opposite of what everyone in the music industry is doing and start doing what works.

5. Going it alone. Look, I get it. Working alone can be great. You can do things your way. You don’t have to listen to what anyone else thinks. You feel really good when you succeed because it’s all you.

However, we are so fortunate to have so many resources available that can help with virtually any situation, why would you go it alone? Plus having someone to collaborate with you and give you feedback and help guide you means you will get there easier and faster. Say if you are great in writing music but suck in writing lyrics, find a lyricist who can help you with the lyrics. Rememebr that Elton John was unable to write a hit song without his lyricist Bernie Taupin.

Also, all the winning songs of the USA Songwriting Competition for the past three years were all multi-way collaborations. If you take a look at the Billboard Hot 100 Charts, you will see that most of the songs on the Top 10 are all multi-way collaborations. Last year's Grammy song of the year "Stay With Me" was written by Sam Smith, James Napier and William Phillips, with Tom Petty and Jeff Lynne receiving co-writer credits due to the song's similarity to Petty's single "I Won't Back Down" after a legal settlement.

By IMMEDIATELY dumping things that aren’t working, you’ll have the opportunity and time to apply strategies to your songwriting that do work. Who knows? Maybe you will be the next person to tell me that your big breakthrough came as a result of getting rid of something that wasn’t giving you the results you wanted.

  
To enter the 21st Annual USA Songwriting Competition, go to: http://www.songwriting.net

 
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Successful Hit Song Structures - Questions & Answers

Posted by Jessica Brandon on Tue, Feb 02, 2016 @07:00 AM

Successful Hit Song Structures - Questions & Answers
by Jason Blume
HitSongStructures

When I took my first songwriting workshop I had no idea that verses, choruses, and bridges were the primary building blocks used in popular songs. Nor did I know that the vast majority of the songs I listened to on the radio combined these components into one of four song forms, or a variation of one of these forms.

Initially, when I learned about song structures, I feared that confining my music to one of a handful of prescribed forms would limit—or even destroy—my creative expression. But I learned that effective songwriting is an art of communication; that a primary goal was to connect with—and evoke emotion in—my listeners. The structures I used to express my songs did not alter their message. To the contrary, presenting my songs in formats with which my listeners were familiar, allowed my audience to receive the melodies and lyrics I shared. My listeners might not be able to define or identify a verse, a chorus, or a bridge, but they had spent a lifetime listening to music that was constructed using these components, so including them added a sense of familiarity.

Popular music is constantly evolving, and this article explores whether the use of song structures has changed, and whether there are any trends to take note of. Before proceeding, I’ll briefly define the functions of each of the “building blocks.”
Verses

Verse lyrics tell the story, include action and details, and lead the listeners to the chorus and the title. Each verse typically has different lyrics, and while there are no “rules” about how long a verse should be, the most common lengths are eight, twelve, or sixteen musical bars.

Hot Tip: To write a second verse, ask yourself, “What else happened? Or, “Then what happened?”
Choruses

Chorus lyrics are usually a simple summation of the concept—a place to summarize the song’s essence in a catchy, easy-to-remember way. Choruses are intended to be the most memorable part of the song, both lyrically and melodically—the part people walk away singing. Choruses tend to be eight, twelve, or sixteen musical bars.

In song forms that include a chorus, the title will almost always be in the chorus. The rare exceptions to this are typically songs written by artists who write for themselves. For example, Coldplay’s GRAMMY-winning Song of the Year, “Viva La Vida” never includes the title in the chorus—or anywhere else in the song.

The chorus lyric does not typically bring in detail or advance the story. Why? Because the chorus will likely be repeated two or three times, and if it is full of detail and story, it probably won’t make sense to repeat it.

Typically, every chorus within a given song will have the same melody and the same lyrics. But there are certainly exceptions. The two choruses in Patsy Cline’s classic “I Fall to Pieces” (Harlan Howard/Hank Cochran) include different lyrics, and in Jimmy Buffett’s “Margaritaville,” the final line of each chorus lyric is different from the others.
Bridges

The word most often invoked when describing the function of bridges is “departure,” and indeed, the most effective bridges depart both melodically and lyrically from the other sections of the song. Ideally, in this section a new lyric angle, new perspective, and/or new information is introduced. Bridges (often referred to as the “Middle 8” outside the U.S.) are typically four or eight musical bars. They can be instrumental (such as in Eric Church’s “Like a Wrecking Ball”), but that’s not typical.

Whether to include a bridge or not is a creative decision based on factors such as whether the writer wants to advance the story, if there is a new melodic element they want to introduce, and the length of the song.
Pre-Choruses

A pre-chorus is a component of a song that occurs immediately before the chorus. Sometimes called a lift, a climb, a channel, a set-up, or a “B” section, its function is to connect and propel listeners from the verse to the chorus—both melodically and lyrically. This sub-section of the verse is most often comprised of four or eight musical bars.

Songs that include a pre-chorus in the first verse almost always have one in every subsequent verse. In songs that have two verses prior to their chorus, the pre-chorus typically only appears in the verse immediately before the chorus.

In many instances (such as The Weeknd’s “Can’t Feel My Face”) every pre-chorus has the same melody and the same lyric. But in the pre-chorus of Taylor Swift’s “You Belong With Me,” the melody of each pre-chorus remains the same, but the lyric changes each time. Both of these approaches are regularly found in successful songs in various genres.
Post-Choruses

Post-choruses (sometimes called “B” choruses) are sections that follow a chorus, providing an additional hook. Most often comprised of four or eight musical bars, the post-chorus might follow every chorus within a given song, or it might be only in the song’s final chorus. In addition to contributing an extra melodic hook, in many instances, this section serves as a place to hammer home the title.

Excellent examples of post-choruses include Taylor Swift’s “Shake it Off” and Katy Perry’s “Roar.”
How Songs Have Typically Been Constructed

The most popular song forms since the era of the Beatles have been:

Verse—Chorus—Verse—Chorus
(Example: Shania Twain’s “You’re Still the One”)

Verse—Chorus—Verse—Chorus—Bridge—Chorus
(Example: Luke Bryan’s “Strip it Down”)

Verse—Chorus—Verse—Chorus—Verse—Chorus
(Example: Elton John’s “Candle in the Wind”)

Verse—Verse—Bridge—Verse
(Example: Whitney Houston’s “Saving All My Love for You”)

These structures are sometimes expressed as:

A—B—A—B
A—B—A—B—C—B
A—B—A—B—A—B
A—A—B—A

Popular variations have included starting with a chorus (B—A—B—A—B or B—A—B—A—B—C—B); having two verses prior to the first chorus; and having a “double” chorus.

In songs that use the A—A—B—A form, a common variation repeats the bridge after the third verse, followed by an additional verse (A—A—B—A—B—A). In these instances the second bridge is almost always the same as the first—melodically and lyrically. The last verse sometimes repeats the lyrics of the first verse, but not in all cases.

In some songs, the pre-chorus is repeated between the second and third choruses, serving the function of a bridge. Sam Hunt’s country hit “House Party” is a good example of this.

The A—A—B—A song form (with slight variations) was used in songs such as Whitney Houston’s “Saving All My Love for You” (written by Linda Creed and Michael Masser), Paul McCartney’s “Yesterday,” and John Lennon’s “Imagine.” This song form seemed to be in a disproportionately large number of songs that became “standards.” But the popularity of this structure began waning in the ‘80s and ‘90s. It can be heard in 2015 Country Song of the Year GRAMMY-nominated song “Chances Are” (recorded by Lee Ann Womack and written by Hayes Carll.)
EDM (Electronic Dance Music) Structures

In pop, country, R&B, adult contemporary, and most other popular styles, the high point of the song is the chorus. But in EDM, the high point is “the drop” or “the dance break.” This section is typically instrumental, or mostly instrumental, with only the title or the hook line being sung.

The chorus—which has lyrics—comes before the drop, usually in the spot where other genres would have a pre-chorus. In EDM, the chorus’s function is to build into the dance break, which is the peak of the song.

While an EDM song might have 2 verses and choruses, in many instances, there is only one verse and chorus. It would be extremely rare for a song in this genre to have a bridge.
Current Trends

David Penn, Founder and Editor-in-Chief of Hit Songs Deconstructed, is an expert regarding the latest trends in pop songs. His website www.hitsongsdeconstructed.com provides intensive analyses of virtually every aspect of the songs that comprise Billboard’s top-10 Hot 100 songs.

When asked what trends he is currently observing in the structures of hits, Penn stated, “One of the most pronounced trend shifts that we’ve observed during the last few quarters is that songs are getting to the chorus/payoff much faster. For example, the percentage of songs that feature the chorus BEFORE the verse reached its highest level in years, skyrocketing from just 25% of songs in the first quarter of 2015, up to 42% of songs in Q2, and remained close to the same in Q3.”

A prime example of a recent hit that started with a chorus is Justin Bieber’s #1, “What Do You Mean” (written by Bieber, Jason Boyd, and Mason Levy). The song uses a B-A-B-A-B form (chorus – verse – chorus – verse – chorus), with each verse including a pre-chorus.

“During the first three quarters of 2015, a total of 21 disparate forms were utilized when crafting the 43 songs that appeared in the Billboard Hot 100 Top 10. The ABABCB form continues to be the most popular, and the BABABCB form follows as the second most popular.” (David Penn, Hit Songs Deconstructed)

Penn continued, “It’s interesting to note that the popularity of the ABABCB form rose to hits HIGHEST level in years in Q1 (60% of songs), followed by dropping to its second LOWEST level in years in Q2, where it accounted for just 26% of songs, and remained almost the same in Q3. This was due in part to the number of forms in the top 10 doubling from 8 to 16 from Q1 to Q3.

The popularity of intros, pre-choruses, and instrumental breaks rose to their highest level in over a year in Q3. Bridges, however, fell to their lowest, being replaced by other sections such as an instrumental break or a changed up pre-chorus to provide a pronounced departure relative to other sections in a song. These are just a few of the many trend shifts that we’ve been observing at Hit Songs Deconstructed.

Aside from the ABABCB and BABABCB forms, most of the other forms in Billboard’s top-10 Hot 100 Songs during the first three quarters of 2015 were found in just one or a couple of songs each quarter. So, the trend is to draw from a wider variety of song forms than have been used in the past.”
Trends in Country Music Song Structures

A review of the 2015 Country Song of the Year GRAMMY nominees revealed that each of the five nominated songs used a different song structure.

    “Chances Are” (recorded by Lee Ann Womack, written by Hayes Carll) is V-V-B-V
    “Diamond Rings and Old Bar Stools” (recorded by Tim McGraw, written by Barry Dean, Luke Laird, and Jonathan Singleton) is V-C-V-C-C
    “Girl Crush,” which was also GRAMMY-nominated for overall Song of the Year, (recorded by Little Big Town, written by Liz Rose, Lori McKenna, and Hillary Lindsey) is V-C-V-C, ending with a reprise of the beginning of the first verse
    “Hold My Hand” (recorded by Brandy Clark, written by Clark and Mark Stephen Jones) is V-V-C-B-C
    “Traveller” (recorded and written by Chris Stapleton) is V-C-V-C-B-C

A look at Billboard’s top-10 Hot Country Songs of 2015 showed that writers of hit country songs are exploring a variety of song structures.

    “Take Your Time” (recorded by Sam Hunt, written by Sam Hunt, Shane McAnally, Josh Osbourne) is V-C-V-C-B-C, with the final chorus featuring a change in the lyric, and what might be considered a post-chorus.
    “Girl Crush” (listed above)
    “House Party” (recorded by Sam Hunt, written by Sam Hunt, Zach Crowell, and Jerry Flowers) is V-C-V-C-C, including a pre-chorus and a post-chorus. A repeat of the pre-chorus following the second chorus serves the function of a bridge.
    “Kick the Dust Up” (recorded by Luke Bryan, written by Dallas Davidson, Chris DeStefano, and Ashley Gorley) is V-C-V-C-B-C, including a pre-chorus and a post-chorus.
    “Crash and Burn” (recorded by Thomas Rhett, written by Jesse Frasure and Chris Stapeton) is V-C-V-C-C with what could be described as a post-chorus after the second chorus.
    “Sangria” (recorded by Blake Shelton, written by J.T. Harding, Josh Osborne, and Trevor Rosen) is V-C-V-C-B-C-B.
    “Homegrown” (recorded by the Zac Brown Band, written by Zac Brown, Niko Moon, and Wyatt Durrette) is V-C-V-C-C-B-C, with a post chorus after the second chorus.
    “Buy Me a Boat” (recorded by Chris Janson, written by Chris Janson and Chris DuBois) is V-C-V-C-B-C.
    “John Cougar, John Deere, John 3:16” (recorded by Keith Urban, written by Shane McAnally, Ross Copperman, Josh Osbourne) is V-C-V-C-B-C-C, with a post-chorus following the final chorus.
    Like a Wrecking Ball (recorded by Eric Church, written by Eric Church and Casey Beathard) is V-C-V-C-B-C, with pre-choruses. The bridge is instrumental.

The classification of whether a section constitutes a bridge, a pre-chorus, or a post-chorus is subjective, and in some instances, is not clear-cut. It is interesting to note that of the fourteen songs that comprise the 2015 Country Song of the Year nominees and Billboard’s top-10 Hot Country Songs of 2015, six had structures that were not found in any of the other songs, while five of them used the V-C-V-C-B-C (A-B-A-B-C-B) and three were V-C-V-C-C (A-B-A-B-B).

While popular songs still rely on the building blocks of verses, choruses, bridges, and pre-choruses, recent hits have included more variations in the way those elements were put together, and post-choruses have become increasingly popular.

Songwriters have been exploring new song forms and variations—and if the music charts and GRAMMY nominations are any indication, listeners have been embracing the new structures.

[Reprinted by permission from BMI]

Jason Blume is the author of This Business of Songwriting and 6 Steps to Songwriting Success (Billboard Books). His songs are on three Grammy-nominated albums and have sold more than 50,000,000 copies. One of only a few writers to ever have singles on the pop, country, and R&B charts, all at the same time—his songs have been recorded by artists including Britney Spears, the Backstreet Boys, the Gipsy Kings, Jesse McCartney, and country stars including Collin Raye (6 cuts), the Oak Ridge Boys, Steve Azar, and John Berry (“Change My Mind,” a top 5 single that earned a BMI “Million-Aire” Award for garnering more than one million airplays). Jason’s song “Can’t Take Back the Bullet” is on Hey Violet’s new EP that debuted in the top-10 in twenty-two countries and reached #1 throughout Scandinavia and Asia. He’s had three top-10 singles in the past two years and a “Gold” record in Europe by Dutch star, BYentl, including a #1 on the Dutch R&B iTunes chart.

Jason’s songs have been included in films and TV shows including “Scrubs,” “Friday Night Lights,” “Assassination Games,” Disney’s “Kim Possible” “Dangerous Minds,” “Kickin’ it Old Skool,” “The Guiding Light,” “The Miss America Pageant,” and many more.  Jason is in his nineteenth year of teaching the BMI Nashville Songwriters workshops. A regular contributor to BMI’s MusicWorld magazine, he presented a master class at the Liverpool Institute for Performing Arts (founded by Sir Paul McCartney) and teaches songwriting throughout the U.S., Australia, New Zealand, Norway, Ireland, the U.K., Canada, Bermuda, and Jamaica.

After twelve years as a staff-writer for Zomba Music, Blume now runs Moondream Music Group. For additional information about Jason’s latest books, online classes, instructional audio CDs, and workshops visit www.jasonblume.com.


To enter the 21st Annual USA Songwriting Competition, go to: http://www.songwriting.net

 
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Tags: songwriter, song writer, song write, Song writing, Songwriting, songwrite, Recording, song demo, song structure, demo recording, writing hit songs, Honing Your Craft